Friday, November 25, 2011

Getting filters to play nicely with Spring

After having some struggle with getting filters to integrate well with my Spring context, I decided to write down a small tutorial for it...

To begin with, filters are defined in web.xml and are therefore not automatically part of the Spring application context, which is normally set up using the DispatcherServlet. A good way to abstract away all this is to use the DelegatingFilterProxy, which is a Spring utility class that acts as a filter, but will delegate the doFilter-method to a Spring-managed bean - normally a class extending GenericFilterBean.

As a filter is defined in web.xml and looks for the bean defined in the Spring context in applicationContext.xml, it's not really the set up that I want. Filters are part of a web application and should have access to what's usually defined in webmvc-config.xml, as part of the DispatcherServlet set up. To be able to use, e.g. request scoped beans in applicationContext.xml, you need to defined them as proxied objects in order to have them looked up at a time where the web context is available.

The small application I'll be showing here is set up with an example filter that stores a request header value into a request scoped variable which is available as a Spring bean, and can therefor be autowired in any other Spring bean later on in the execution of the request. This demonstrates a nice way to have a loose coupling between the different components, without having to e.g. pass the information in method variables. It also gives the ability to test the components outside a web context.

To begin with, a normal filter definition using the DelegatingFilterProxy needs to be added to web.xml:

        Header Filter

        Header Filter

Make sure the init param "targetBeanName" is set to the name of the Spring bean to delegate to (or rely on the default, where the filter's name is used to look up the bean). Now, let's have a look at the definition of the Spring filter bean and the request scoped bean in applicationContext.xml, incl. the acutal implementation of the filter:



Note how the request scoped bean is defined to be a proxied, using

    package com.technowobble.web;

    import javax.servlet.FilterChain;
    import javax.servlet.ServletException;
    import javax.servlet.ServletRequest;
    import javax.servlet.ServletResponse;
    import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
    import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
    import org.springframework.web.filter.GenericFilterBean;

     * Intercepts all incoming requests and parses out Ninaa headers into a session scoped variable.
    public class HeadersFilter extends GenericFilterBean {
        private Headers headers;

        public void doFilter(ServletRequest request, ServletResponse response, FilterChain chain) throws IOException, ServletException {
            if (request instanceof HttpServletRequest) {
                HttpServletRequest httpRequest = (HttpServletRequest) request;
                Headers.Types[] values = Headers.Types.values();
                for (int i = 0; i < values.length; i++) {
                    headers.setHeader(values[i], httpRequest.getHeader(values[i].toString()));

            chain.doFilter(request, response);

For this set up to work and have the filter to acutually be able to look up the real object at runtime, we need to add a RequestListener to web.xml, which will wire up the request context to all beans running outsite of the DispatcherServlet, i.e. our filter.


Ok - so far so good. Let's wire it up together in a controller, which uses an example component that will serve as the component that will use the information gathered from the filter. Note that the component used by the controller is not aware of any request/response objects and doesn't have any parameters in it's methods.

    package com.technowobble.controller;

    import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
    import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;
    import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
    import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMethod;
    import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ResponseBody;
    import com.technowobble.component.MyComponent;

    public class MyController {
        MyComponent myComponent;
        @RequestMapping(method = RequestMethod.GET)
        public String createResponse() {
            return myComponent.getSomethingDependingOnHeaders();

The @ResponseBody is just an easy way to get rid of all view lookups and send the header values straight to the browser...

    package com.technowobble.component;

    import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
    import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

    import com.technowobble.web.Headers;

    public class MyComponent {
        Headers headers;
        public String getSomethingDependingOnHeaders() {
            return "You are accepting " + headers.getHeader(Headers.Types.Accept);

Now, check if everything workes as expected by launching the application using "mvn jetty:run" and browse to "http://localhost:8080/technowobble/myController/".

The last thing to report is how to test the MyComponent in a separate JUnit-test... First of all, there's no web context in a JUnit-test, and therefor no notion of a request scope. This is solved by defining a custom scope (implemented by a ThreadLocal implementation) in a separate applicationContext-test.xml which is used in the test.


After this, the actual test is straightforward:

    package com.technowobble.component;

    import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals;

    import org.junit.Before;
    import org.junit.Test;
    import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
    import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
    import org.springframework.test.context.ContextConfiguration;
    import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner;

    import com.technowobble.web.Headers;

    public class MyComponentTest {
        private Headers headers;
        private MyComponent myComponent;
        private static final String ACCEPT = "text/html";

        public void setUp() throws Exception {
            headers.setHeader(Headers.Types.Accept, ACCEPT);

        public void test() {
            assertEquals(myComponent.getSomethingDependingOnHeaders(), "You are accepting " + ACCEPT);

Note that the headers bean is setup during the setUp()-method and that the myComponent have access to it using normal dependency injection.

That's it. The full source code can be downloaded from here

Thanks for reading!


  1. Nice example code! Your readers may also want to see my Servlet filter tutorial. I recommend using filters for tasks like blocking specific IP access, compressing response and stopping malicious attacks.

  2. nice exampe if you share the working full code will be very help full.